Thursday, May 21, 2020
Within this essay I will discuss the issue of reoffending rates in England and Wales, and identify relevant statistics associated with this ever-increasing social problem. The annual cost of reoffending to the UK is between Ã £9.5 and Ã £13 billion, more than the cost of holding the London Olympics each year. David Downes (2001) argues that there is an ideological function of reoffending Ã¢â¬â to make capitalism look successful. This is because it soaks up a large percentage of the unemployed, therefore making unemployment official statistics look better. Research has identified a correlation between reoffending rates and the length of sentence. One might expect that the people who had originally been given longer sentences would be the more hardened criminals and therefore more likely to be reconvicted. But the highest reconviction rates are actually given to those who have served less than 12 months. However, these statistics are only records of the number of former prisoners who have been reconvicted. The number who actually return to crime is likely to be higher because many donÃ¢â¬â¢t get caught (Wilson Ashton, 2001). The trend is that typically, the shorter amount of time an inmate serves, the more likely they are to reoffend after they have completed their sentence. Data of adult offenders released from custody between October 2012 and September 2013 in each prison has shown how many will go on to commit further offences, and how many offences they will typically commit. HMShow MoreRelatedThe Between Private And Public Priso ns942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThere are varying views and contradictory findings on the differences in reoffending rates between private and public prisons. While private prisons have been useful, I believe that it does not have an advantage over public prisons with regard to rehabilitation and reoffending rates of offenders. Private prisons were first implemented in order to combat the effects of overcrowding and the increasing cost of maintaining public prisons (Mennicken, 2013; Jones Newburn, 2005). While private prisonsRead MoreYoung Offenders Into The Community1152 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesREINTEGRATING YOUNG OFFENDERS INTO THE COMMUNITY Introduction This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of working with young offenders to prevent them from reoffending. The aim of this paper is to learn about the experiences of individuals who have been released from prison into the community so as to make contributions into developing relevant interventions based on the difficulties/barriers faced by these individuals. To add to this, this paper will explore whether everyone of theseRead MoreWhy Are Prisons Still Successful For Helping Prevent Crime?1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesequip them for life after imprisonment and to encourage change. Not everyone agrees as they feel they should be punished for what they have done and its not fair they have access to privileges. Could more freedom be the answer to help reduce reoffending in the UK? Bastoy Prison is situated on an island close to Norway. It has bare minimum security with only 69 staff members for over 110 prisoners. Every type of offender can be taken in. They have the freedom to travel around the island and do activitiesRead MoreRestorative Justice and Youth Reoffending in the United Kindom950 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesincidents of crime against households and resident adults (aged 16 and over) in England and Wales for the year ending June 2013 (ONS). This represents a 7% decrease compared with the previous yearÃ¢â¬â¢s survey. Though the rate of crime seems to decrease recent concerns about the rate of reoffending seems to be in main stream of discussions today (ONS). Non-Governmental organizations have started a renewed campaign on the application of a community based system of justice which would include the Victim, offenderRead MoreThere Are Many Social And Health Needs Of Prisoners, Some13 32 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprisoners is often found to deteriorate within the institution. It has been addressed that people within the prison population face significant inequalities in care from those in the community; this includes homelessness after release, a higher mortality rate as well as depression statistics (Bradley. 2009). The Marmot Review, also called Ã¢â¬ËFair society, healthy livesÃ¢â¬â¢, was published in 2012, this was an independent review into inequalities in health, the society and the healthcare system. Since the MarmotRead MoreWhat is Community Corrections? Essay example1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrather the likelihood of reoffending. This is actually the opposite of the popular misconception that the Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ suggests Ã¢â¬Å"dangerousnessÃ¢â¬ (Duwe, 2013). According to this principle, resources should be allocated with priority accorded to supervision and treatment of higher risk offenders. For instance, individuals with relatively higher likelihood of recidivism should be accorded the greatest treatment dosages and highly intensive intervention programs so as to minimize reoffending. Additionally, membersRead MoreUnintended Consequences Of The State Prison System1010 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageson custody: it is possible that too many offenders will still be locked-up, regardless of the location,Ã¢â¬ according to Owen and Mobley (2012, p. 47). Despite the shift of inmates to jails, overcrowding and inadequate medical and mental health care issues did not disappear at the state level ((Mineau, 2014). Three counties, Fresno, Riverside, and Monterey, have been sued for inadequate living conditions; it is likely that this trend will continue. Furthermore, the State assumes that the countiesRead MoreSexual Offenders Is The Most Vilified Type Of Offenders Within Public Opinion And The Criminal Justice System1672 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesScholle, 2000; Tewksbury and Lees, 2006; Wagner, 2011). Sex offender registry laws were intended to increase public safety and to reduce the reoffending rates of sexual offenders. However, this paper will argue that registration has no effect on recidivism rates and that the law actually negatively impacts rehabilitative goals because of the unforeseen issues stemming from registration. An analysis of the existing body of literature concerning registration from the United States will address the natureRead MoreYoung Offenders Into The Community1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesREINTEGRATING YOUNG OFFENDERS INTO THE COMMUNITY Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of working with young offenders to prevent them from reoffending. The aim of this paper is to learn about the experiences of individuals who have been released from prison into the community so as to make contributions into developing relevant interventions based on the difficulties/barriers faced by these individuals. To add to this, this paper will explore whether everyRead MoreÃ¢â¬ËThe Overall Fear Of Crime Has Increased Over The Last1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof crime. However the myth that the high the prison population is, the crime rate reduces; however it is not evidence based. What about the crimes that was not reported? If the prison population gone from 40,000 to 85,000, then why is there still huge number of arrests being made every day? Which raises the real questionÃ¢â¬ ¦ what kind of crime are the offenders being arrested for? Because there is also the factor of high rates of re-offending! What is the government t hen doing about rehabilitation? So
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
FREE WONÃ¢â¬â¢T The question whether one is responsible for his behaviors either good or bad because he has free will to decide what to do or donÃ¢â¬â¢t versus he has no moral responsibility for his behaviors because every act is pre-determined by his brain beyond his conscious control is definitely one of the controversial questions of today raised by psychologists, philosophers, neurologists and many others. According to the deterministic idea, everything happening is really the only thing that could happen in that circumstances and could be predicted while the idea of free will supports we somehow have a choice to decide on our acts, that we are self-determined and this is what makes us different from machines as humans. By taking the course material presented to us into consideration, I believe in compatibilism. Most of the time we do what our brain, nature and nurture lets us do and we do what is expected but when necessary we also have the ability to cancel the command given by it, which is referred as Ã¢â¬Å"free wonÃ¢â¬â¢t.Ã¢â¬ B. F. Skinner demanded that free will is kind of an illusion and it may not be totally wrong to think that. Our astonishingly sophisticated brains are made up of numerous harmonious systems firing information and generating our ideas, consciousness, decisions and acts. It may even be responsible for making us think that we have a free will. Certain stimuli can interfere with the firing ways of synapses and have an effect on our learning, thus behavior. Moreover,Show MoreRelatedIs It Responsible For His Behaviors Either Good Or Bad?886 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe question whether one is responsible for his behaviors either good or bad because he has free will to decide what to do or donÃ¢â¬â¢t versus he has no moral responsibility on his behaviors because every act is pre-determined by his brain beyond his conscious control is definitely one of the controversial questions of today raised by psychologists, philosophers, neurologists and many others. According to the deterministic idea, everything happening is really the only thing that could happen in thatRead MoreAn Introduction Of Ethical Theories859 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare driven by both reaction and instinct. Not taking responsibility for your own behavior or actions is an example of impulsive behavior. In some instances an individual will deny any involvement in the situation, activity, or event; in others, the individual suggests that someone else is responsible. This type if behavior can be categorized as both impulsive and deliberate. From the impulsive act this type of behavior occurs on the spur of the moment. When an individual performs some action thatRead MoreThe Reason Why Children Misbehave Essay784 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesa happy family. Childrens behaviors are mainly affected by their parent, so their behaviors whether it is good or bad depend on their parents action. Some parents are not careful about how to raise their children, and then they misbehave with their parents and with everyone. I believe that parents are the only persons who are responsible of their childrens behaviors, because children always obey them. However, some people believe that children have to be responsible of their act. Many people dontRead MoreRacism In Jean Paul Sartre1548 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJean-Paul Sartre, France and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest philosophers of the 20th century, was a witness to two world wars. Being in the heart of it all shaped hi s personality and his views in many ways. Sartre was one of the first to address the silence on the Jewish treatment during and after the Second World War. By doing so; he started a chain reaction that formed a whole new school of thought where an entire generation of philosophers tried to answer the fundamental questions about anti-Semitism specificallyRead MoreThe Stanford Prison Experiment Addressed The Psychology Of Behavior Essay820 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGeneral topic that the article is addressing The Stanford Prison Experiment addressed the psychology of behavior. The experiment specifically addressed the influences of behavior in regards to imprisonment. I recently saw a documentary about the Stanford Prison Experiment and I was shocked that subjects were subjected to such cruelty. The subjects were young intelligent students who likely had never encountered such abuse. Sadly, in the 1970s experiment rules and regulations were severely lackingRead MoreNon Christians Present A Concern For The Christian Therapist1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShould the Fact that All were Either Atheists or Non-Christians Present a Concern for the Christian Therapist? B.F. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of behaviorism claims that behavior is directed by environmental reinforcements, some natural and some intentionally applied. Skinner proposed three possible consequences of any behavior: reinforcements which are consequences which increase the likelihood of behavior (such as praise or food), punishments which tend to decrease behavior (such as a frown or a trafficRead MoreThe Theory Of Free Will1616 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFree Will Free will is the ability to choose freely and control our actions. Basically, free will shows the level of responsibility we claim for our actions and decisions. Obviously, if outside forces determine our choices, we cannot be held responsible for our actions. However, if our choices are made with total freedom than certainly we must claim responsibility for our choices and actions. God is justified in creating a world with the existence of free will which philosophers such as DÃ¢â¬â¢HolbachRead MoreStudying Right and Wrong Behavior in Society1385 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthics is the study of right and wrong behavior in a society. In every professional field, there are codes of conduct that govern the actions of those in the field. It is a noble idea to police and oversee codes of ethics. The crisis lies with the individual who chooses not to pursue the code. There are people who are careless about the consequences of their actions by purely living for the moment, and if jail time cannot discourage them from their deed, a code of conduct will be deemed useless.Read More Parenting Styles and Childrens Development Essay1374 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslife. These parenting styles can be either good or bad and this will have an effect on the child; either a positive or a negative one. This essay investigates the parenting styles from which emerge questions about the role of the mother and the father. It also focuses on the ways that either too much mothering or too much fathering might have an effect on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s identity later on in its life. What is good parenting style and how should parents act? Good parenting style shapes a childÃ¢â¬â¢s characterRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Classroom Management997 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe time is appropriate. I will have the traditional teaching style which is the students paying attention to the teacher, then once the students seem to understand the content they will then be able to move around and interact with other student in either group discussions or at the learning centers throughout the classroom. My classroom will be nice and bright to keep up the positive energy, and it will still be conducted as a learning environment for my students, and they will understand that everything
What is means by communication actually? Communications define as process of interchange of information that mainly included sending and receiving process. What is means by a successful communication? When sending a message there are kind of barriers can be interrupt, that disturb overall the communication structure, by solving the problems and finally receiving message in proper manner, than it is become a successful communication. In this research I am going identify the main purposes of communication, find out the characteristics of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure, analyses the impact of the organization structure on how communication occurs and on its effectiveness and changes in organizational structures. We will write a custom essay sample on Communication Within Workplace or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the same time, I will study on the barriers of communication in my workplace. Finally find out the way avoid the barriers to improve commutation, and the problem solving ways to have beautiful standard communication structure within my workplace. Research Question: 1. What are the benefits or purpose of communication within a workplace? 2. What is the structure of communication that should be have in a workplace and donÃ¢â¬â¢t have in my workplace? 3. What are the barriers of communication within workplace? 4. How to adopt the proper communication structure? 5. Who should be taking responsible to a successful communication in a workplace, who will be benefited by this proper channel? 6. What kind of communication should be have, depend on situation? 7. What is Different of current communication system and the communication should be adopted? 8. How to overcome the barriers to improve communication my workplace? Research Objective: The objective of this research is analysis the overall communication benefits and the barriers that make brake down of communication and also the ways of solving barriers within my workplace. How to cite Communication Within Workplace, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Abstract Companies have tended to focus a lot on philanthropy as one way of marketing themselves. This has been equated to capacity building in myriad of ways.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Organizational and Capacity Building specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the term capacity building can be viewed from various perspectives. For instance, building cooperation and coordinated minds in an organization is one form of capacity building. The latter starts from within an organization before taking the shape of social responsibility. While capacity building has several definitions and various concepts, the most outstanding feature of this organizational feature is that it enhances unity. In an organization, capacity building means bringing together all players in the organization for purposes of driving the organization from one level of operation to another. Therefore, all organizational players must a gree to form one channel of development. There are various means of building capacity in the organization. One way is by developing a strong culture full of positive values, beliefs and norms to be followed by all employees. After coming up with one mind that is directed towards improving the performance of the organization, employees and other stakeholders can then focus on offering community assistance. This will then translate to community building or social responsibility. American Civil Liberty Union is a non-profit organization focused on enhancing human rights amongst the publics. However, the company may not succeed if it does not invest in capacity building in the organization. While the company has tried to its best to enhance this concept, it has not succeeded to levels that can make all proud. Therefore, there is need to change quite a number of issues for purposes of building from that front. This paper analyzes the concept of capacity building and how it has been appli cable in this organization. The paper also explores some of the approaches which can help build more of capacity in the organization.Advertising Looking for coursework on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Company: American Civil Liberties Union Capacity building is capable of bringing in some harmonization amongst key players of an organization. At American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), the department tasked with maintaining capacity building has done significant work. As an employee in the department, I have experienced some ways of maintaining togetherness in the company, which has led to harmonization in the company. The company has faced off tumultuous times like the Financial Crisis of 2009. This company has used a number of skills in building strong capacity amongst the employees and utilization of technology. One way the company has done this is by training of organizational employees and enhancing co operation. The company has made it as a conceptual process to develop within the company by putting a major focus on the people in the organization. Employees in various departments are coordinated in a way that brings even development in the organization. Some of the directors in the company include the development director, the Staff Attorney, Paralegal person, the legal fellow, and the communication director, the Administrative Assistant, development associate, legislative director, executive assistant and the field director among others. The deputy director is the head of a department tasked with enhancing capacity building in the organization. Working under Mary Beijian; the deputy director in the company is fulfilling because it gives a chance to build the company from within. The policy in the company is to always be on the upward trend towards organizing strategies plus some public policy lobbying. The bottom line is to establish good links between various members of the sta ff in the company and another link with the publics. Prior to moving to the department of deputy director, she was tasked with improving affirmative actions. However, it is the Organizing Community Engagement Director who comes directly with issues touching on capacity building in the company. Some of the efforts that have been taken are the implementation of engagement with communities, instituting recruitment programs, general capacity-building efforts, effective planning for the human resource persons and coming up with strategies to enhance grassroots participation.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Organizational and Capacity Building specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are also some advocacy campaigns that are meant to bring together company membership, especially in the organizational employees and managers. The communication director is tasked with communicating important details that enhances cap acity building in the company. Laura Saponara is the Communication director and is tasked with coming up with crucial measures that would ensure all members of the organization are informed of major decisions. The biggest advantage that has been brought in the company as a result of enhancing organizational capacity building is the social impact. There is a common language in the company in terms of talking from one front. Due to effective distribution of important information, everybody in the organization becomes the image seller. That is, they understand all what the organization stands for and therefore act as the image sale agents. Capacity building has helped the company improve in productivity. Mostly, this has been brought about by effective training programs for the employees and improving the social fabric amongst the employees. When the company employees speak from one front, mistake is corrected in one accord and the employees are able to improve on productivity. Everybo dy in the organization acts like an owner, where, the spirit and determination to succeed or perform in the organization is evident in the eyes and faces of the employees. Concept of capacity building According to Maurrasse (2004), capacity building is a modified form of social responsibility. However, it focuses more on building energy and cooperation in the organization. It is this energy and cooperation that is then transmitted to social responsibility and community building. Maurrasse (2004) writes that it is agreed in any organization and mostly the non-profit organizations that there is insufficient attention paid towards building the organizational capacity. However, organizations are moving towards putting a strong partnership and cooperation before the energy could be reinvested in performance. There are some crucial parts of capacity building that should not be ignored. According to Judge (2011), these measures are extension programs of an organization, delivery capacity, adaptive capacity and improving of health amongst the workers. Mostly, the organization should first analyze its market environment and the dynamics that have come with modernity to know the kind of capacity building to initiate.Advertising Looking for coursework on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Judge (2011) puts it plainly that capacity building is making two forms of personality and minds become one. That is, bringing different lines of thinking to become one for the purposes of realizing benefits. The best outcome of capacity building is improved social fabric and impact in the organization. Strategic leaders in the world are under intense pressure to realize good results. However, it is the employees who must put their efforts towards harmonized improved of the organizational performance. This can be done through harmonized thoughts, enhanced positive culture and improving the social fabric in the organization. It is, however, the work of the strategic leaders to make sure that the employees think from a common front. When organizational inner capacity building is enhanced, the employees together with the management can extend to the community building through social responsibilities. The approach to have capacity building in the organization Before instituting a strong sense of responsibility in an organization, there must be some steps to be followed. These steps must be coordinated well to make sure that important parts are not missed. According to Joffres (2004), there are three common forms of capacity building. One, the capacity building at an individual level, where, a person in an organization develops within to build participative skills, enhance his or her existing knowledge and establish conditions that would improve adaptation to change. Second, the institutional capacity building, where, the organization works out some programs to improve on knowledge, cooperation, learning and performance. The third is the societal capacity building which advocates for participation amongst its members. Some of the ways of instituting or improving capacity building in an organization is by developing a strong culture full of positive norms and values to be followed by the organizational players (Jones, 2001). There are various factors and facilitator s that contribute to sustainable development through capacity building. According to Jones (2001), these factors vary from one organization to another. However, common to these are the established organizational culture and the multi-sectoral initiatives in the organization. Researches support participation as the best form of capacity building in the company. However, it can be recognized that before establishing participation and cooperation in the organization, there must be a positive culture. The culture in the organization must allow people to express themselves and put own initiatives freely. This way, organizational staff and other players would have organizational ownership which is essential in enhancing cooperation. More to this, the leadership of the organization must be ready and willing to bring various minds together. There must be technical supports, congruence, research activities, readiness and strong leadership to enhance capacity building. Enhancing capacity buil ding at American Civil Liberty Union As noted earlier, there are some bits of capacity building practiced at American Civil Liberty Union. Through a number of organizational leaders, employees and other shareholders of the company are brought together in terms of thinking for the organization. However, there are some grey areas that need to be addressed effectively. For example, this company has tended to equate high strategic management to capacity building. The company is a non-profit organization, and therefore, it depends fully on funding. The kind of capacity building that is practiced in the company is one which focuses on securing funding from interested parties. This needs to change and focus capacity building as a form of building strong cooperation among the organizational players. Even where the company gives out a strong message to potential funders in the world, a focus on improving participation amongst the employees is crucial. At long last, funders may opt to move ou t simply because the company may slowly disintegrate. Capacity building in this company is capable of strengthening the link between positive image and production. The positive image is meant for all stakeholders, while production is meant to benefit people from the program. This company is all about civil liberties, and therefore, with effective capacity building, it is possible to boost the impact. Social impact needs to be created first being creating the fabric in social responsibility. The various managers of this company recognize the growing need of capacity building but lack the means to do so. The first thing to do is for the top management to come up with a culture that can bring the minds and people together for a focused form of productivity. Another aspect of development in terms of capacity building at this company is to enhance affirmative action and upholding various human rights. References Joffres, C. 2004. Ã¢â¬Å"Facilitators and challenges to organizational capac ity building in heart health promotion.Ã¢â¬ Qualitative Health Research, 14(1), 39-60. Jones, M. L. 2001. Ã¢â¬Å"Sustainable organizational capacity building: Is organizational learning a key?Ã¢â¬ The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(1), 91-98. Judge, W. Q. 2011. Building Organizational Capacity for change: The leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s New Mandate. New York: Business Expert Press, LLC. Maurrasse, D. 2004. A future for everyone: Innovative social responsibility and community partnerships. New York: Taylor Francis, Inc. Appendix: Possible scenarios of capacity building at ACLU This coursework on Organizational and Capacity Building was written and submitted by user Bridget Warren to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Homeless veiw essays Right now my view of homeless people is those who dont have the mental capacity to take care of themselves and therefore they end up living off of other peoples change on the streets. I often view them without a family and no real initiative to be successful or seek comfort in their lives. It seems that many are alcoholics and drug abusers and are desperate to get those things no matter what the cost. They appear very sad and lost, like all they really need is someone to tell them they are important and can make a difference in the world. I think that they have a very carefree nature and dont take other peoples opinions into consideration at all. They could care less what others think, and for that they are willing to lay and sleep in places we wouldnt imagine even walking on. A lot of them seem to be struggling through life and are taking all the wrong choices of changing their lives whether its because of mental issues or just laziness. As much as I want to believe they are there t rying to get money to pay for a rsum, I often believe theyre finding all the money they can to buy things that will only make their problems worse. After reading this article I have definitely developed a new sympathy for those living on the streets. I had always thought of homeless people as drunks who dont want to work or achieve anything in life, but I have now realized that the upper class citizens dont allow these people to get much of a second chance. They feel uncomfortable and embarrassed of the homeless and only think negatively of them. If being called worthless and being looked down upon is what these people experience daily, I can understand why they dont want to get jobs or start over. They eventually believe they are worthless and unproductive because that is what they are told; they arent given that encouragement or love that people need to experience in order to gain in...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Marie Antoinette, Queen Executed in French Revolution Marie Antoinette (born Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna von Ãâ"sterreich-Lothringen; November 2,Ã 1755Ã¢â¬âOctober 16,Ã 1793) was the queen of France, executed by guillotine during the French Revolution. She is most known for supposedly saying Let them eat cake, although the French quote translates more precisely as, Let them eat brioche, and there is no proof that she said this. She was reviled by the French public for her lavish spending. Until her death, sheÃ supported the monarchy against reforms and against the French Revolution. Fast Facts: Marie Antoinette Known For:Ã As the queen of Louis XVI, she was executed during the French Revolution. She is often quoted as saying, Let them eat cake (there is no proof of this statement).Also Known As:Ã Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna von Ãâ"sterreich-LothringenBorn:Ã November 2, 1755Ã in Vienna (now in Austria)Parents: Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Austrian Empress Maria TheresaDied:Ã October 16, 1793 in Paris, FranceEducation: Private palace tutorsÃ Spouse: King Louis XVI of FranceChildren: Marie-ThÃ ©rÃ ¨se-Charlotte, Louis Joseph Xavier FranÃ §ois, Louis Charles, Sophie HÃ ©lÃ ¨ne BÃ ©atrice de FranceNotable Quote: I am calm, as people are whose consciences are clear. Early Life and Marriage to Louis XVI Marie Antoinette was born in Austria, the 15th of 16 children born to Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Austrian Empress Maria Theresa. She was born on the same day as the famous earthquake of Lisbon. From birth, she lived the life of wealthy royalty, educated by private tutors in music and languages. As with most royal daughters, Marie Antoinette was promised in marriage in order to build a diplomatic alliance between her birth family and the family of her husband. Her sister Maria Carolina was married to Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, for similar reasons. In 1770 at age 14, Marie Antoinette married the French dauphin Louis, grandson of Louis XV of France. He ascended the throne in 1774 as Louis XVI. Life as Queen Marie Antoinette was welcomed in France at first. Her charisma and lightness contrasted with the withdrawn and uninspiring personality of her husband. After her mother died in 1780, she became more extravagant, which led to growing resentment. The French were also suspicious of her ties to Austria and her influence on King Louis XVI in attempting to foster policies friendly to Austria. Marie Antoinette, formerly welcomed, became vilified for her spending habits and her opposition to reforms. The 1785Ã¢â¬â1786 Affair of the Diamond Necklace further discredited her and reflected poorly on the monarchy. In this scandal, she was accused of having an affair with a cardinal in order to obtain a costly diamond necklace. After an initial slow start at the expected role of child-bearer- her husband apparently had to be coached in his role in this- Marie Antoinette gave birth to her first child, a daughter, in 1778, and sons in 1781 and 1785. By most accounts, she was a devoted mother.Ã Paintings of the family stressed her domestic role. Marie Antoinette and the French Revolution After the Bastille was stormed on July 14, 1789, the queen urged the king to resist the Assemblys reforms, making her even more unpopular and leading to the unproven attribution to her of the remark, Quils mangent de la brioche!- often translated as Let them eat cake! The phrase was actually first seen in print in Jean-Jacques Rousseaus The Confessions, written before Marie Antoinette was queen. In October 1789, the royal couple was forced to move from Versailles to Paris. Two years later, the attempted escape of the royal couple from Paris was stopped at Varennes on October 21, 1791. This failed escape was reportedly planned by Marie Antoinette. Imprisoned with the king, Marie Antoinette continued to plot. She hoped for foreign intervention to end the revolution and free the royal family. She urged her brother, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, to intervene, and she supported a French declaration of war against Austria in April 1792, which she hoped would result in the defeat of France. Her unpopularity helped lead to the overthrow of the monarchy when Parisians stormed the Tuileries Palace on August 10, 1792, followed by the establishment of the First French Republic in September. The family was imprisoned in the Temple on August 13, 1792, and moved to the Conciergerie on August 1, 1793. The family made several attempts to escape, but all failed. Death Louis XVI was executed in January 1793, and Marie Antoinette was executed by the guillotine on October 16 of that year. She was charged with aiding the enemy and inciting civil war. Legacy The role Marie Antoinette played in French governmental affairs, both domestic and foreign, was likely greatly exaggerated. She was particularly disappointing to her brother, the Holy Roman Emperor, for her inability to further Austrian interests in France. Her lavish spending, furthermore, did not significantly contribute to Frances economic troubles before the revolution. Marie Antoinette, however, remains an enduring symbol, around the world and across history, of the extravagance of monarchy and aristocracy- against which revolutionaries define their ideals. Sources Castelot, AndrÃ ©. Queen of France: A Biography of Marie Antoinette. Harper Collins, 1957.Fraser, Antonia.Ã Marie Antoinette: The Journey. Anchor Books, 2001.Thomas, Chantal The Wicked Queen: The Origins of the Myth of Marie-Antoinette. Zone Books, 1999.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Three theories for a better life - Essay Example Thus, it is important that we know Ã¢â¬Å"ourselvesÃ¢â¬ , our failings, our tendencies and our weaknesses so that we may guard ourselves from it and prevent ourselves from veering away from virtuousness. We can take for an example an honest family man who makes a living for his family. He may toil with integrity under normal situation, but when a crisis like losing a job will set in, he may be faced with a dilemma that would reveal his weakness and change his disposition (honesty). He may be tempted to commit fraud when presented the opportunity just to provide for his family. This is a common dilemma that confronts many Ã¢â¬Å"honestÃ¢â¬ people which made them less virtuous because it hit their unguarded weaknesses such as theirlove and duty for their family that held them hostage to do things that they do not like. 3) (a) State and explain the meaning of the second version of Kant's categorical imperative. (b) what are the ethical implications of thisÃ imperative; [c] provid e a somewhat detailed analysis of an ethically relevant problem or situation, different from those discussed in theÃ readings or in class, that can be illuminated through this imperative. To effectively explain KantÃ¢â¬â¢s second version of categorical imperative, it would be necessary to understand what Kant meant by categorical imperative. According to Kant, imperatives imply what they meant which are command such as Ã¢â¬Å"wake up earlyÃ¢â¬ . Often they are hypothetical imperative because they only serve a specific objective or purpose such as Ã¢â¬Å"wake up early so you will not be later for work. This imperative or command becomes categorical when it is applied... To effectively explain KantÃ¢â¬â¢s second version of categorical imperative, it would be necessary to understand what Kant meant by categorical imperative. According to Kant, imperatives imply what they meant which are command such as Ã¢â¬Å"wake up earlyÃ¢â¬ . Often they are hypothetical imperative because they only serve a specific objective or purpose such as Ã¢â¬Å"wake up early so you will not be later for work. This imperative or command becomes categorical when it is applied universally and that the actions and decisions of individuals are to be judged solely by their motivations and that the consequences do not matter morally (as in the case of hypothetical imperative) neither the intended consequences nor the actual consequences matter morally; only the principle or rule we follow if we do the action matters morally. Thus actions themselves become an end and this action should be a rational result in the exercise of freewill. Consistent to this, KantÃ¢â¬â¢s second impe rative states that every person has the duty to use and exercise his goodness/humanity as a means to an end. The application of this second formulation of KantÃ¢â¬â¢s categorical imperative is best illustrated in slave ownership. A slave owner may assert his right to own a property which in this case is a slave. While ownership by itself is not immoral, slave ownership becomes unethical or immoral according to KantÃ¢â¬â¢s second imperative because it deprives a person of his free rational action and that persons can never be a mere means to an end.